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03-033 Audio CD: SYMPOSIUM: Starch modification through biotechnology

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Speakers:
Yuan Yao
Sakharam Patil
Christer Jansson

03-033 Audio CD: SYMPOSIUM: Starch modification through biotechnology

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There are several excellent efforts by biotechnology groups worldwide to enhance the knowledge in the genomic of starch production and polymer properties at the molecular levels in the development of novel starch properties. Much of the work is focused on creating fundamental genetic knowledge, including the transformations between related and even unrelated plants. Modified starches and other complex carbohydrates from genetically modified corn are intended to provide new and beneficial functionalities that, in turn, make possible new products and markets for corn. Other important benefits include more uniform functionalities that are not possible with today’s chemical modification routes, reduced processing costs, decreased or eliminated chemical modifications of the types resisted by consumers and environmentalists, and lower costs for users. Genetic modifications may result from traditional plant-breeding techniques or through biotechnology. There can be many other benefits from these starches that include improving gel properties; improving viscosity and temperature stability; reducing retrogradation and increasing freeze-thaw and storage stabilities; mimicing properties of gelatin and fats; improving flavor and flavor stability; reducing or increasing digestibility; improving adhesion and film formation; and achieving more efficient processing (for example, milling and fermentation, reduced energy in cooking) of biosynthesis pathways, the mechanism of producing novel starch properties. Overall, the market needs must drive the development efforts. Food markets are highly fragmented and food starches--both modified and unmodified--have very diverse applications in many food segments. Starches and their various derivatives are used in hundreds of processed-food products. Modifications that can be achieved through transgenic means, by which genes for new enzymes are introduced into corn from other plants and novel mutation for enhanced carbohydrates will be pre